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2018中考英语:常用交际用语正误辨析

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发表于 2018-4-20 20:30:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  如果外国人发现你的英语不错,他们会讲: Your English is very good. 这时中国人常常会说:不,我说的不好。这是一种中国式的礼貌的答语,但是不符合英语习惯,它正确的答语应是 Thank you。以下是一些常用的交际用语正误分析:
            01
            — What can I do for you?
            — Yes, please help me.(×)
            — What can I do for you?
            — I'd like to buy a sweater.(√)
            [析] What can I do for you? 这一问句实际适用于很多情景,要根据具体情况而定。如在商店中售货员讲这句话应译为:您想要点什么?在其他场合也可以被译为:我能为您做些什么?它的答语应是直接讲出想让对方提供的帮助。
            02
            Do you like to come with us tonight? (×)
            Would you like to come with us tonight? (√)
            [析] Do you like … 问的是对方的习惯,如: Do you like swimming? Do you like collecting stamps? 而 would you like … 则是一次性的邀请、提议。
            03
            — What's that man?
            — He is Mike.(×)
            — What's that man?
            — He is a teacher.(√)
            — Who's that man?
            — He is Mike.(He is Mike's father.) (√)
            [析] 由 what 提问是问的职业,由 who 提问问的是姓名或身份。
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发表于 2018-4-20 22:01:00 | 显示全部楼层

       
                 
            04
            — How much are they?
            — Half a kilo, please.(×)
            — How many bananas do you want?
            — Half a kilo,Please.(√)
            [析] How much are they? 问的是价格而不是实际物品的多少。
            05
            I'm sorry, but is this the way to the park? (×)
            Excuse me, but is this the way to the park? (√)
            [析] I'm sorry 是对已经做错了的事向对方道歉时的开始语。而 Excuse me 是在打扰对方之前表达歉意的话。
            06
            — Have a good time tonight!
            — You are the same.(×)
            — Have a good time tonight!
            — The same to you.(√)
            [析]The same to you 意为我也祝您有个愉快的夜晚,它是美语中的习惯用法。
            07
            — What's the problem?
            — I've got a headache.(×)
            — What's wrong with you?
            — I've got a headache.(√)
            [析] What's wrong with you? 是询问对方身体状态如何,而 What's the problem?是问对方遇到了什么麻烦。
         
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发表于 2018-4-20 23:17:48 | 显示全部楼层

       
                 
           08
            — Now, I'm back. Can I play?
            — Perhaps. You'd better do your homework first.(×)
            — Now, I'm back. Can I play?
            — I'm afraid not. You'd better do your homework first.(√)
            [析]Perhaps 是表示对一种拿不准的事态的推论,如: —Am I right? —Perhaps. 而 I'm afraid not 则表达一种不同意的态度。
            09
            — How soon will you be ready?
            — Two days.(×)
            — How soon will you be ready?
            — In two days.(√)
            [析] 此题关键是要根据情景,身临其境,要注意的是对方问了什么,就应答什么。或答了什么就应问什么。 How soon 问的是"还有多久才能作完",这时要用 in two days, 即在两天之内即可以作完。如用 How long 提问,则答语可以用 two days。
            10
            — Would you mind if I have some time off?
            — I don't mind.
            — Monday and Tuesday of next week.(×)
            — Would you mind if I have some time off?
            — When exactly.
            — Monday and Tuesday of next week.(√)
            [析] 有的对话是复杂的,稍有不慎就有可能选错,而且英语中如选错了答案是不容易找出错来的。 I don't mind 是可以用来回答 Would you mind…这一提问的,但如仔细看一看则会发现我们要选用的不是陈述句而是疑问句。根据下面一句的答语来判定要用 when exactly? 什么时间,这样才能与下句中具体的时间相符合。
         
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发表于 2018-4-20 23:41:34 | 显示全部楼层

       
                 
           11
            Suppose your name is Tom. The phone rings and you pick it up. The first word you say will probably be "Who are you?" (×)
            Suppose your name is Tom. The phone rings and you pick it up. The first word you say will probably be "Hello? This is Tom speaking?" (√)
            [析] 在英语学习中,习惯用法实际上在某种情况,或某种意义上讲比语法更为重要。如果只从句子的角度上去分析,它们可能都是对的。比如,当你拿起电话时,如果你想知道对方是谁,可以问"Who's that(speaking)?"但不要讲"Who are you?"如果你想先介绍一下自己可以讲"This is ×××× speaking"而不要讲"I'm ××××"也不要讲"My name is ×××××." 就语法而论,"Who are you?" "I'm ××××.""My name is ×××××."并没有错,也是英语中可用的句子,但就打电话这一场合,就不宜用了。
            12
            — Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?
            — I don't hope so.(×)
            — Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?
            — I hope not.(√)
            [析] 由于初学者对实际英语口语中表达感情意愿的答语不熟悉,如在肯定答语中 I think so/I hope so/ I believe so是相同的,但在否定句中却常用 I don't think so. 但I don't believe so. 和 I don't hope so. 则意为:我不信此事和我不希望此事发生。而 I believe not.和 I hope not.则为:我想可能不会发生吧!
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发表于 2018-4-21 00:29:35 | 显示全部楼层

       
                 
            13
            — Is anybody there?
            — No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave.(×)
            — Is everybody there?
            — No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave.(√)
            [析] 许多学生在写作和选择答语或问句时总要语法在前,而不是习惯用语在先。所以总是要拘泥疑问句中的不定代词。Is anybody here? 在英语中意为:这里有人吗?而Is everybody here?为:全都到齐了吗?所以首先要考虑的是其答语。 No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave.
            14
            — Your handwriting is very good!
            — No, my handwriting is very poor.(×)
            — Your handwriting is very good!
            — Thank you.(√)
            [析] 中国人遇到别人称赞,总是以谦逊为美德。但英美人则往往认为自信是美德。所以当别人夸奖你或赞美你时,就应说: Thank you. 又比如中国人见面时常讲 Where are you going? 或 Have you had your breakfast yet?而英美人则认为你过多的干预别人的私生活了。而他们见面时往往问一些无关紧要的话,如: Hello! How are you going? (你过得怎样)! 等。而Good morning 和 How do you do则被认为是较正规的问候语,在日常生活中则十分少见。
         
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发表于 2018-4-21 01:50:30 | 显示全部楼层

       
                 
           15
            When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave, you may say: "Excuse me. I'll go first." (×)
            When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave, you may say: "Excuse me. I have to go." (√)
            [析] 这两句答语都是正确的,其关键不是语法,而是习惯问题。如果在这样的场合你讲 I'll go first. 朋友们会迷惑不解,而 I have to go则表示由于外界的特殊原因而造成的你要离去,而你本人则十分不愿做此事。
            16
            — Would you like to come to dinner tonight?
            — I'd like to, and I'm too busy.(×)
            — Would you like to come to dinner tonight?
            — I'd like to, but I'm too busy.(√)
            [析] I'm too busy与 I'd like to在意义上正好相反。所以要用转折连词。这里考查了对词义合乎逻辑的表达能力。所以要强调语言环境,更要强调在语言的基础上的词语辨析。
         
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发表于 2018-4-21 02:11:23 | 显示全部楼层

       
                 
           17
            — Where's Deter?
            — Deter will come with us tonight but he isn't very sure yet.(×)
            — Where's Deter?
            — Deter may come with us tonight but he isn't very sure yet.(√)
            [析] 由于 but 所引出的句子可以看出 Deter 的来与不来是十分不确定的,所以应用 may 来表达一个不肯定的事件。
            18
            — Hi, haven't seen you for ages! You look fine!
            — Great. You look well too.(×)
            — Hi, haven't seen you for ages! You look fine!
            — Thanks. You look well too.(√)
            [析] 要注意的是 Great 在口语中多表示惊叹,而 Thanks 则表示感谢对方的称赞。所以对情景谈话要有准确的判定,要根据情景,身临其境,上下对照,周密思考,弄清场合,注意英美人的风俗习惯,注重语义上的词语辨析,并要进行大量的语言实践练习,扩大实际交际能力。
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