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2015初中英语语法详解之动词语态解析

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发表于 2016-6-28 22:14:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
和时态一样,语态也是动词的一种形式,用来说明句中主语和谓语的关系。如果动作由主语执行,就可使用主动语态,如果主语不是由主语执行,主语是动作的承受者,则可使用被动语态。由此我们可以看出英语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。
        被动语态:表示主语是动作的承受者,什么事情被主语做。被动语态的构成和形式被动语态由"助动词be+及物动词的过去分词"构成,一定要记住是及物动词。助动词必须与主语的人称和数一致,注意要与我们前一讲学过的八个时态配合使用。
        适合被动语态的情况:
        不知道动作由谁发出,或由于某种原因没有必要说明谁发出动作。如: This table is made of wood.   需要突出或强调动作的承受者时,如: This park was built for children.
        注意:主动句中的主语如果是people,they,somebody等含糊的表示"人或人们",没有确指执行者是谁,为被动句时,通常省略"by+执行者"。如:The door was opened secretly. But nobody came in.
        注意:在主动句里,不定式在make,see,hear等动词后面作宾语补足语时都不带to,但变成被动句时,后面的不定式都需带to。如:He was made to do that work.
        主动语态不能变被动语态的情况:学了被动语态,别以为主动句和被动句可以随意转换,千万要注意呀!有些主动语态不能转换成被动语态。当宾语是反身代词时, 如:You should take care of yourself. 当谓语是表状态的而不是表具体动作的及物动词时,如:Does the skirt suit you?
        练习:
        1. The stars _______ in the daytime.
        A. can't see
        B. can't be seen
        C. can't been see
        D. see
        2. A present _______ to me by Mother next week.
        A. will give
        B. is given
        C. will be give
        D. will be given
        3. The Communist Party of China _______ in Shanghai in 1921.
        A. was found
        B. found
        C. was founded
        D. founded
        4. Great changes _______ in my hometown since liberation.
        A. have been taken place
        B. took place
        C. have taken place
        D. were taken place
        5. I was astonished (吃惊) to hear that the colour TV set _______ 5,000 yuan.
        A. has cost
        B. cost
        C. costed
        D. was cost
        6. He was seen _________ something from the shop.
        A. steel
        B. to steal
        C. to be stolen
        D. stealed
        7. She has _________ by her classmates.
        A. laughed
        B. laughed at
        C. been laughed
        D. been laughed at
        8. The computer ________ in the room.
        A. can use
        B. can be use
        C. can be used
        D. can used
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