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2016年中考英语:常用的不规则变化动词形态大全-不规则动词

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发表于 2016-6-28 22:18:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  ★记忆法二:不规则动词相对于规则动词来说,难记得多,是最难对付的一类词。学生难学,老师难教。幸好它们不是杂乱无章的,可根据其中的一些内部规律来记忆。下面给大家介绍一种归纳记忆法,以期大家在攻克这一难关时,能收到事半功倍的效果。
       
          一、原形、过去式、过去分词相同:
       
          cost/cut/hit/hurt/let/put/read/shut
       
          (细心的你一定会发现,这些词中大多数是以字母t结尾的。)
       
          二、原形、过去式相同,过去分词不同:
       
          beat/beat/beaten
       
          三、原形、过去分词相同,过去式不同:
       
          come/came/comebecome/became/becomerun/ran/run
       
          (come,become,属不规则变化,但welcome属规则动词,其过去式、过去分词为:welcomed,welcomed)
       
          四、过去式,过去分词相同:
       
          (1)去掉字母组合ee中的一个e
       
          meet/met/metfeed/fed/fed
       
          (2)去掉字母组合ee中的一个e,然后再在词尾加t
       
          feel/felt/feltsleep/slept/slept
       
          keep/kept/keptsweep/swept/swept
       
          (3)词尾为的ll去掉一个l加t
       
          spell/spelt/speltsmell/smelt/smeltspill/spilt/spilt
       
          (4)过去式和过去分词以aught或ought结尾
       
          catch/caught/caughtteach/taught/taughtbring/brought/brought
       
          buy/bought/boughtthink/thought/thought
       
          (5)将stand改为stood
       
          stand/stood/stoodunderstand/understood/understood
       
          (6)将ay改为aid
       
          lay/laid/laidpay/paid/paidsay/said/said
       
          (7)将d改为t
       
          lend/lent/lentsend/sent/sent
       
          spend/spent/spentbuild/built/built
       
          (8)将i改为a,o,u等
       
          sit/sat/satspit/spat/spat
       
          dig/dug/dugwin/won/won
       
          (9)将ell改为old
       
          tell/told/toldsell/sold/sold
       
          (10)词尾加t
       
          learn/learnt/learntmean/meant/meant
       
          dream/dreamt/dreamtspoil/spoilt/spoilt
       
          (11)有两种过去式和过去分词,一种是不规则的,一种是规则的:
       
          learn/learnt/learntlearn/learned/learned
       
          shine/shone/shoneshine/shined/shined
       
          hang/hung/hunghang/hanged/hanged
       
          smell/smelt/smeltsmell/smelled/smelled
       
          burn/burnt/burntburn/burned/burned
       
          light/lii/litlight/lighted/lighted
       
          (12)其它
       
          have(has)/had/hadhear/heard/heard
       
          shoot/shot/shotlose/lost/lost
       
          hold/held/heldget/got/got(AmEgotten)
       
          find/found/foundmake/made/made
       
          leave/left/left
       
          五、三者均不同:
       
          (1)过去式以ew结尾、过去分词以own结尾
       
          blow/blew/blownfly/flew/flown
       
          grow/grew/grownknow/knew/known
       
          throw/threw/thrown
       
          值得注意的是:
       
          show/showed/shown或showeddraw/drew/drawn
       
          (2)改i为a变成过去式、改i为u变成过去分词
       
          begin/began/begundrink/drank/drunk
       
          ring/rang/rungsing/sang/sung
       
          swim/swam/swumsink/sank/sunk
       
          (3)改i为o变成过去式,过去分词以n结尾
       
          drive/drove/drivenwrite/wrote/written
       
          rise/rose/risenride/rode/ridden
       
          (4)原形后加n变成过去分词
       
          drive/drove/drivenrise/rose/riseneat/ate/eaten
       
          give/gave/givenfall/fell/fallen
       
          (5)过去式后加n变成过去分词
       
          break/broke/brokenchoose/chose/chosen
       
          freeze/froze/frozenmistake/mistook/mistaken
       
          steal/stole/stolenspeak/spoke/spoken
       
          take/took/takenwake/woke/woken(或woke)
       
          (6)其它
       
          be/was或were/beendo/did/doneforget/forgot/forgotten
       
          go/went/gonehide/hid/hiddensee/saw/seen
       
          wear/wore/worn
       
          六、有两种过去式和过去分词,但词义相同。
       
          wake/woke/woken(或woke)wake/waked/waked
       
          sink/sank/sunksink/sunk/sunken
       
          七、动词因其过去式、过去分词有两种形式而产生不同词义:
       
          shine、hang的两种过去式和过去分词:
       
          shone/shone照耀shined/shined擦亮
       
          hung/hung悬挂hanged/hanged绞死
       
          八、两个既可以做过去式,又可以做动词原形的词
       
          lie躺卧lay/lain/lying(现在分词)
       
          lay放,下蛋laid/laid/laying
       
          find找到、发现find/found/found
       
          found创建,成立found/founded/founded
       
          九、根据动词之间的词义联系来记忆
       
          (一)词义相对:
       
          (1)come/came/come来——go/went/gone去
       
          (2)give/gave/given给——get/got/got(AmEgotten)获得
       
          (3)sleep/slept/slept睡觉—wake/woke/woken(或woke)
       
          或wake/waked/waked醒来
       
          (4)rise/rose/risen上升、上涨、升起——fall/fell/fallen下降、落下、倒下
       
          sink/sank/sunksink/sunk/sunken沉下,(使)下沉
       
          (5)buy/bought/bought买——sell/sold/sold出售,卖
       
          (6)take/took/taken带去——bring/brought/brought带来
       
          (7)teach/taught/taught教——learn/learnt/learnt
       
          或learn/learned/learned学习、学会
       
          (8)lose/lost/lost丢失、失败——find/found/found找到
       
          win/won/won赢得、(获)胜
       
          (9)stand/stood/stood站、立——sit/sat/sat坐
       
          (10)send/sent/sent送、寄、发送——get/got/got获得、收到
       
          (二)词义相近:
       
          (1)beat/beat/beaten打,打败win/won/won赢得、获胜
       
          (2)understand/understood/understood懂,了解
       
          know/knew/known知道,了解,认识
       
          (3)get/got/got(AmEgotten)变成、成为、变得
       
          become/became/become变成,成为,变得
       
          go/went/gone变成turn/turned/turned变成
       
          (4)spend/spent/spent花费、度过
       
          pay/paid/paid支付、交纳
       
          cost/cost/cost花费、价值为
       
          take/took/taken花费
       
          (5)say/said/said说、讲
       
          speak/spoke/spoken说、演讲
       
          tell/told/told告诉、说、吩咐、断定
       
          talk/talked/talked谈话,讲,谈论,议论
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