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2016年中考英语阅读技巧精讲(一)

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发表于 2016-6-28 22:18:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  阅读理解技巧精讲
       
          第一:从逻辑学角度看待英语文章的结构
       
          任何一种语言本身都存在着一种内在的逻辑联系,故而了解英语的文字结构至关重要。从逻辑学角度看,文章存在二中逻辑结构。
       
          其一,有的文章从开篇就出现具体的事例,具体的任务或是非常具体的数据,实验等,其作用即在于引入主题,并加以论述证明自己的观点的可取性与合理性。这种逻辑结构即为归纳思维,类似于数学里的归纳法。即使是应对一个具体的段落而言,段落的结构有一部分也符合这种模式,亦即在一段开始也是列举具体的事例,数据,实验过程讲解等,这时候可以直接跳到段落结尾处去找重点,因为此段落也符合归纳的逻辑思维。用中文的解释即为:总、分、总的文章结构。
       
          Eg1:Imagine you’re at a party full of strangers。 You’re nervous。 Who are these people? How do you start a conversation? Luckily, you’ve got a thing that sends out energy at small chips(芯片) in everyone’s name tag(标签)。The chips send back name, job, hobbies-whatever。 Making new friends becomes simple。
       
          This hasn’t quite happened in real life。 But the world is already experiencing a new age of using RFID technology。
       
          学生面对这两段文字将如何快速找出主旨?看文章第一个词Imagine(想象)就应断定是列举实例的开篇方式,主旨不在于实例本身而应是实例后的总结,即第二段文字是重点,通过实例总结出来的一个结论或是一个要讨论的主题。还有第二段文字以否定句开头,以转折句衔接,故而二句都是重点。因为阅读过程中要格外注意三种句型:否定句、疑问句、转折句。那么这篇文章的主旨应为:。 predict the uses of RFID technology 预测RFID (刷卡技术)的使用。从字面意思看:此种场景在现实生活中还没有真实发生,但世界即将经历一个新时代的到来。
       
          Eg2: At the University of California, my students and I studied more than 2,000 years of self-change methods and also reviewed the scientific research works on that。 Among all the methods, three should be specially mentioned: they‘re useful, simple and easy to learn。 What’s more, people who have made successful changes in their lives often depended on one or more of these methods。
       
          To get yourself started in a new direction, try the Three M‘s:
       
          学生如何确定这两段文字的重点内容?看第一句同样是讲述作者自己的亲身经历与研究领域,没有多大意义;第二句看主句内容 three should be specially mentioned:要特别提到三种方法,后一句讲的是三种方法怎么重要,没有多大意思。如果出题人给出此文的写作目的是什么?那么用归纳的思维来判断第二段小文字为重点,应为这是承上启下段落。To get yourself started in a new direction, try the Three M‘s:(想让自己重新来过请试试三个M方法)那么用出题人自己的语言概况应为:To encourage people to change their bad habits。
       
          其二:也是大多数文章的结构,即与归纳思维反向的演绎思维,也是西方逻辑学上突破性的思维方式,直接推动西方科学知识的进步与突破。即开篇即提出作者自家的观点,而且大多数都是猜测出来的口吻,运用的助动词多为情态动词can、may、 could、 might;或是其他表示推测的词性如:possible, probable, likely等及其变形。那么此时这篇文章的中心就在文章的开头处,必须精读此处,切莫略过!
       
          Eg1: Younger adults who get either little sleep or a lot of it may see a greater increase in their waistlines over time, a study suggests。
       
          Eg2: Some people think that they have an answer to the problems of automobiles crowding and pollution in large cities。 Their answer is the bicycle, or bike。
       
          Eg3:In modern society there is a lot of disagreement about competition。 Some value it highly, believing that it is good for social progress。 Others say that competition is bad。 It sets one person against another。 And it leads to unfriendly relationship between people。
       
          此三段文字都为观点类句式,如think,disagreement等。
       
          第二:要了解中学阶段阅读的具体题型。针对考试当中经常出现的题型现归类如下:
       
          A:缺少句子成分题型。如缺少主语,宾语,状语成分,这是考试中最长出现的类型题。
       
          Eg1:When we wear a pair of 3D glasses, _____。此题提供的内容是时间状语从句,要补充主句的内容,那么学生必须在原文中锁定题干中句子在原文何处出现,定位住原文后要精读此句,找出与原文意思相同的句子,切莫一味找寻与原文一样的答案,因为很少有和原文完全相同的答案,如果真的出现与原文相同的句子,那就是最简单的题型。定位原文Three-dimensional technology uses two film projectors(投影机)。 One projects a left eye image and the other projects a right eye image。 3D glasses allow us to see a different image in each eye。
       
          那么答案大致为:our brain will get a different image from each eye
       
          Eg2:Why do some people welcome competition according to the passage? 题干为因果关系题,亦即原因状语的题型,还是一样要从原文找内容,而不是从头脑中找答案,不要记忆原文内容,要定位原文,精读原文,与四个答案相对应,确定标准选项。定位原文:In modern society there is a lot of disagreement about competition。 Some value it highly, believing that it is good for social progress。 Others say that competition is bad。 It sets one person against another。 And it leads to unfriendly relationship between people。 此段文字第一句即为主旨,开篇提出要讨论的主题,即现在社会中人们对竞争的看法。紧接着就是列举一些人的不同观点,证明分歧在哪里。故而出现some,others的句式结构,这是明显的列举方式。针对此题定位原文应为横线句:一些人高度重视,认为它有助于社会进步。那么答案为 It pushes society forward。含义相同句式不同,这是正确答案的设置方式,因为要体现出出题人的应为驾驭能力,要体现出解释的作用,理解的特点:即用不同的词或短语解释文中出现的复杂句式,paraphrase the sentence。
       
        Eg3:Not all memories are sweet.Some people spend all their lives trying to forget bad experiences wars and traffic accidents can leave people with terrible physical and emotional(精神上的)hurts。 Often they appear again in dreams。
       
          Now American researchers think they are close to developing a drug,which will help people forget bad memories.The drug is designed to be taken immediately after a frightening experience They hope it might reduce or possibly erase(清除)the effect of painful memories。
         
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发表于 2016-6-28 23:45:49 | 显示全部楼层

       
  
                 
          2.In November, experts tested a drug on people in the US and France.The drug stops the body producing chemicals that fix memories in the brain。 So far the research has suggested that only the emotional effects of memories may be reduced,not that the memories are erased。
       
          The research has caused a great deal of argument.Some think it is a bad idea,while others support it。
       
          Supporters say it could lead to drugs that prevent or treat soldiers’troubling memories after war They say that there are many people who suffer from terrible memories·
       
          “Some memories can ruin(毁坏)people’s lives.They come back to you when you don’t want to have them in a dream.They usually come with very painful emotions,” said Roger Pitman, a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School。“This could reduce a lot of that suffering”
       
          But those who are against the research say that changing memories is very dangerous because memories give us our identity(特质)。 They also help us all avoid the mistakes of the past。 “All of us can think of bad experiences in our lives that were horrible at the time but make us who we are.I’m not sure we want to erase those memories,” said Rebecca Dresser, a medical ethicist。
       
          1.Now American researchers are trying to develop a drug to_______D_____。
       
          A.change people’s bad memories into good ones
       
          B.make people forget what happened in the past
       
          C.help soldiers get away from troubling memories
       
          D.treat people who suffer from terrible memories
       
          The drug that have been tested on people can ____B_____
       
          A.cause the brain to lose memories
       
          B.reduce the effect of bad memories
       
          C.help people improve their memories
       
          D.totally erase the painful memories
       
          Rebecca Dresser thinks that ______C_____
       
          A.some memories can ruin people’s lives
       
          B.the drug can prevent people from sufferings
       
          C.bad memories make us different from others
       
          D.taking the drug will do harm to people’s health
       
          此三题是出自一篇阅读理解,都为缺少句子成分题型,所以第一步都是在原文定位句型。
       
          第一题:定位答案句型如横线部分1,那么答案就在这一段,而不在于你的头脑之中。而且要体现上文提到的解释作用和特点,不是照抄原文只言片语,比如bad memories, terrible memories, painful memories or experiences 都可以,所以答案在定语从句Which中,为D。
       
          第二题:第一步定位原文2。 略过第二句,锁定最后一句的最后部分only the emotional effects of memories may be reduced,应为中间都是过程的解释,我们要的是结果,答案为B。
         
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发表于 2016-6-29 00:09:18 | 显示全部楼层

       
  
                 
          第三题:此为类型题的一种即问某个专家的具体观点题型,此题必须针对原文找答案,找出原文句子的同义句或解释的句子。第一步锁定题干位置如图所示3。这一段较长哪句是重点?第一句为什么?看But 一词,这一句是反对此种研究人的观点总结,后面举一个具体的专家观点,可以忽略而且第一句中because这部分为答案。答案为C
       
         B。 对错题。出题方法一般为Which of the following statement is true or not true? or Which of the following is right or wrong except?此种题型多数答案为文章中心句子或中心含义的进一步说明和解释;少数题的答案为文章某一具体句子意思的解释。
       
          Do you know that women’s brains are smaller than men’s? Normally the women’s brain weighs 10% less than men’s。 Since research has shown that the bigger the brain, the cleverer the animal, men must be more intelligent(聪明的) than women。 Right? Wrong。 Men and women always score similarly on intelligence tests, despite the difference in brain size。 Why? After years of study, researchers have concluded that it’s what’s inside that matters, not just the size of the brain。 The brain is made up of “grey matter” and “white matter”。 While men have more of the white matter, the amount(数量)of “thinking” brain is almost the same in both men and women。
       
          Which of the following is TRUE according to Paragraph 1?
       
          A。 Grey matter controls thinking in the brain。
       
          B。 Men’s brain is 10% less than women’s。
       
          C。 Grey matter plays the same role as white matter。
       
          D。 Men and women have the same amount of white matter。
       
          B答案的10%是最好锁定原文的答案也最好判断对错,此句为主语与表语的篡改,错。
       
          C和D答案都用了the same as 句式,找回原文,C 答案明显的无中生有,D答案为篡改原文内容,因为文中的疑问是Since research has shown that the bigger the brain, the cleverer the animal, men must be more intelligent(聪明的) than women。 Right? Wrong。注意疑问句Right?,他的回答是Wrong,错在哪里?细看这一句,since很关键意思是:既然,而非自从,既然研究证明大脑越大,这种生物就越聪明,那么男人一定比女人聪明。对吗?错。 再往下看Why?的问句后的回答即为结论:After years of study, researchers have concluded that it’s what’s inside that matters, not just the size of the brain。 Conclude结论是:大脑内部起作用而不是大小在起作用。A答案是从原文内容推断出来的选项而非只言片语的改写,是在解释最后一句的意思,故为正确答案。
       
          C。 推断题型。出题方法一般为 what can we learn from the passage? What can we infer (draw, indicate, imply) from the passage? 多数答案为文章中心意思的解释,少数情况下为文章某一细节的总结和概括。切记推断题型必须要体现推断的特点,不能照抄原文,即使一模一样也不是答案,如果是绕着文章某个句子在改写也不是答案因为没有体现总结和推断的特点,只是只言片语的罗列,千万不要选。
       
          And what is wrong with a society that thinks that making up a good excuse is like creating a work of art? One of the common problems with making excuses is that people, especially young people, get the idea that it’s okay not to be totally honest all the time。 There is a corollary(直接推论)to that: if a good excuse is “good” even if it isn’t honest, then where is the place of the truth?
       
          What can we infer from the last paragraph according to the writer?
       
          A。 A good excuse is the same as honesty。
       
          B。 Inventing a good excuse needs creative ideas。
       
          C。 Unpleasant truth is better than a good excuse。
       
          D。 Making a good excuse is sometimes a better idea。
       
          如何判断这一段的重点在哪里?针对一段文字来出的题型无论怎么问,对错,总结,推断,举例证明什么目的,推出什么结论,所有的题的答案都是这一段中心句的解释。这段文字重点句是最后一句,因为那里有一个汉语翻译:直接推论,明显是个结论,所以是重点,答案就在这一句中,而且要格外注意最后的疑问句then where is the place of the truth?
       
          中国人做的答案都很短,有强烈的总结性和概括性,不照抄原文。大意为:如果一个借口足够好即使它不是真实的,那么真理将摆在哪里呢?答案为C。
       
          结论题。出题方法一般为 What can we conclude from the passage? or What is the conclusion of the passage? 结论一词的含义是:到最后将观点总结,所以这种题的答案在文章最后。
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